hygienic darkroom retreat

profound rest for the self‑healing psyche

by andrew durham

4 - format

We can use darkness in various formats for different reasons. Here, I describe formats in which I have experienced deep rest and gotten positive results in my energy level, psychic state, and general well-being. I also explain ways darkness can go wrong and how to easily avoid them.

I recommend gradually increasing the length of stays in darkness. First darken your bedroom for sleeping and maybe mini-retreats (12–16 hours). This improves your sleep and gives you a taste of a retreat. Upgrade it for a 4-day retreat. This gives you relief, some profound rest, and the beginnings of healing.

A dedicated public darkroom works better for 8-day retreats and medium-length retreats (3–8 weeks). I believe we can heal from the core of our suffering in a medium retreat. Your experience at home might inspire you to build such a darkroom yourself. Interest in darkness is growing and the world needs more than the 50 or so facilities that exist.

Greater, probably private preparations must be made for long retreats (3-12 months). We can heal from everything in a long retreat, especially physical illness, including aging.

In general, the longer a retreat, the better its conditions must be. This means more silence, space, comfort, and support. While you can pull off a 4-day retreat in a minimalist manner nearly anywhere, even an 8-day retreat requires upgrading. A retreat may prove one of the most important things that happens in your life. It deserves serious attention.



Get relief tonight from most outdoor ambient light. Put dark, dense sheet material over your bedroom windows and doors. In 5-10 minutes:

  • tack or tape up
    • blankets, sleeping bags, dark bedsheets or extra curtains
    • black plastic, carpet, or cardboard
    • or prop up plywood, old doors, or big table tops
    • use whatever you have to cover the windows
  • extend corners of flexible materials as far past door on either side as possible
  • turn off or cover any devices in your room that produce light
  • make sure you have plenty of fresh air, even if it lets in a little light
  • block some of the remaining light with a sleeping mask from an airline or travel store; a tall winter hat pulled down, or a dark t-shirt draped over your eyes. Every bit helps.

We all know how it feels to sleep a lot after too many short nights: we feel sluggish afterward. Some people call this getting too much sleep, a physiological impossibility. They just do not know how tired people can get and still not get fired from their jobs. In fact, we are tapping into the first layer of a backlog of lost sleep. Feeling groggy is the first phase of catching up. This can take days. Reversing sleep deprivation is like withdrawing from strong drug. Like me, you may need a retreat to get to the other side of it without backsliding.

In the meantime, this format helps us remember how important darkness is. Next step is to make an instant sleeping mask. When ready for perfect darkness for nightly sleep, make blackout blinds, a silencer and lightproof vents so your room is dark, quiet, airy, and easily reopened to light during the day.


We require total darkness to sleep well. No one is an exception to this. You may be able to fall asleep despite the street light right outside your bedroom, but only at the expense of overall function (see the
Law of Vital Accommodation). The circadian system has not changed one iota since industrialization. It never gets used to anything. If light intrudes on your sleep, it will signal the circadian system to make your sleep less deep and restful, whether you know it or like it or not. It’s like what many clients told me after their retreats: “I had no idea how tired I was.”

From simply darkening his bedroom, a friend reported to me a huge difference in the quality of sleep he and his mate experienced, as well as a return of vivid dreams. I have experienced the same thing whenever I have been able to darken the room I sleep in. As a rule, the darker the room, the better the sleep. 100% darkness is 1000% better than 99.9% darkness. Extinguishing that last bit of light leaves the mind nothing to hang onto, giving new meaning to “falling asleep”. See for yourself.

It is best to go to sleep early, from 18:00 to 22:00 at the absolute latest. Then one naturally awakens about 4 hours later for 1-3 hours. At this hour, one is freshly rested, yet the promise of sleep lies ahead. The world outside is quieter; children are asleep; the mind runs more slowly; and inhibitions are slightly relaxed.

Thus sex can be especially gratifying. Many consider it an auspicious hour for meditation or prayer. Use a candle or other dim, warm lighting. Avoiding the cold blue tint of some LEDs, which signals the circadian system to awaken. Light exercise, light reading, and light snacking (on fruit) are fine, too. And perhaps a menial chore or two. But avoid more serious work. It stimulates too much waking thought and distracts from getting back to sleep when tired again.

Usually sleep goes 3-4 more hours. It is deliciously renewing. A nap in the early afternoon, as short as 20 minutes, will refresh you yet again. That is, if you can stand feeling this good.

Before widespread public lighting, this was a common sleeping pattern. It’s called biphasic or segmented sleep. It is natural and retreating strongly resets it. If it happens to you, don’t consider it strange, but a normal part of human life recovered.

Many aspects of modern life seem increasingly out of control. Blackout blinds offer the unique thrill of reclaiming control over one of the most basic functions of existence: sleeping and waking. Neither the sun nor streetlighting nor scheduling accidents determine anymore when you wake up. You do, and only when you are good and ready.



Short retreats span from 14 hours to 8 days. You can at least begin at home.


Note: I do not recommend mini-retreats for everyone, just if you feel strongly called to it and find yourself able to do it without cutting corners and endangering yourself. I cannot do them properly, so I don’t try anymore. I just include it because I saw it was possible and I can imagine there are people whose capacity and circumstances make it appropriate.

A mini-retreat allows you to dip your toe into retreating while keeping your usual daily schedule. It includes the two primary phases of a retreat: sleeping long and deeply, and being awake by yourself without distraction for some hours in the middle of the night.

It is the same as sleeping nightly in darkness except you:

  • turn off lights by 20:00*
  • maintain darkness whether or not you wake up in the middle of the night
  • get 1-2 extra sleeps in the morning
  • stay in darkness 12–16 hours*

A mini-retreat helps maintain restedness between 4- and 8-day retreats. Some benefits of retreating fade and at different rates. To extend them and smooth the transition to the moment of needing to retreat again, do a mini-retreat once a week between regular retreats.


Do not start a mini-retreat after 20:00, nor stay in longer than 16 hours. In me, these induced mild shock and very negative feelings and thoughts that took a 4-day retreat to recover from.

In retreat, the organism strongly resets natural biological rhythms. Namely, going to sleep whenever tired, especially at nightfall. If you can’t start your mini-retreat on time, postpone it till you can. Starting regular retreats an hour or two late is less than ideal, but it still works because the organism has time to compensate. This is not the case with mini-retreating.


The human organism in darkness seems to go through a 48-hour cycle with a point of no return after 16–18 hours. So either exit before going past this point or complete the cycle with a 4-day retreat. Otherwise you may experience very negative consequences. It’s like jumping out of a Ferris wheel after it has gone too far up. Read my blog post, how not to retreat, for a longer explanation.

Biological rhythms are very powerful and apparently cannot be messed with in this way. So, better safe than sorry, at least until you have retreated enough to feel confident about experimenting with mini-retreats.

4-day retreat

Once your darkening and ventilating measures are working smoothly for nightly use and mini-retreats, you can easily add the remaining elements of a darkroom for a regular retreat. (If you retreat for the first time at a center, you can begin with an 8-day retreat.)

Everyone interested in a 4-day retreat can try one. Though not guaranteed, it is possible to catch up on all the sleep one ever lost in four days. The amount of deep sleep that can be had in such a short amount of time is impossible to conceive beforehand and hard to believe even after experiencing it. You can get relief from your distress and overstimulation. You can recover homeostasis and equilibrium. You can regain hope and register a memory of feeling very good. While most effects fade after a few weeks, you will begin to recover little pieces of your lost self. Lastly, you start learning how to be in darkness. Your supporter starts to learn how to be around a retreat. You will get a clearer idea about how and when to do future retreats, and for how long.

Timing of regular retreats is a bit more flexible than mini-retreats. Plan to turn off lights between 18:00 and 20:00. If something comes up and you are a little late, it’s ok. But if you start after 22:00 due to scheduling, insomnia, anxiety, or addiction, add an extra day and night of darkness to your retreat. This, by the way, is how to begin seriously interrupting these illnesses. The effect of such a short retreat will likely be temporarily. But at least you’ll glimpse the light at the end of the tunnel.

In accordance with the natural diurnal cycle, go into darkness in the evening and come out in the morning. Just stay in extra days in between. This makes the dark part of a retreat 2.5 days (60 hours). Avoid checking the time. Use a cellphone alarm set to a specific day to know when the retreat is over.

Besides sleeping as much as possible, eating, eliminating, and bathing, what does one do in darkness without work, people, or media? Light exercise and restful placement of attention. I explain more about the latter in protocol > attention.

Afterward, slowly re-adjust to light. You did not just watch a matinee in a dark cinema, but spent days in total darkness. Sudden exposure to daylight would be a painful and unnecessary shock. Spend a minimum of 15 minutes gradually relighting the room by opening the door and window panels a few millimeters at a time.


I got caught in a whirlpool made of a several 4-day retreats. It has been difficult to break out of. I lost too much false capacity before restored normal capacity could compensate. Avoid this mistake. If you do one, just do one or two 4-day retreats, and absolutely no more than three. Then steam ahead with arrangements for an 8-day retreat.s_


It takes time to properly readjust to light and ordinary life. So a period of unstressed transition back to it is just as important as darkness itself. For every three days of darkness, plan at least 24 hours of identical conditions except with sunlight and walks during the daylight.

Hormones need time to readjust to light. The sense of balance can also be affected. Retreating has often felt like a chemical process, with a feeling of sleepiness or coolness flooding through my brain or hands. And it takes time to reflect on what just happened, to begin integrating the changes, extra energy, and value of the retreat.

So spend the transition quietly. First, uncover at least one window. Take a slow walk or two and sunbathe outside. Visit with no one. Take a nap, covering the windows for it if you like. Then cover the windows between 18:00 and 20:00 and spend the whole night again in darkness.

After your last sleep, slowly uncover the windows. Consider your retreat finished by noon at the latest.

Ease back into your regular life. I mean avoid non-routine activities the first week. You will likely continue to notice effects from the retreat. Due to their dreamlike intensity, I call this the aftermath. See protocol > post-retreat.

If your location has no running water, it’s no problem. For this short of a period, it is unnecessary. See water for a short list of requirements.

8-day retreat

If you have built your own darkroom, only do an 8-day retreat once you and your support team have each done a 4-day retreat. If retreating at an established darkroom, you can begin with an 8-day retreat. The organism’s response to darkness is cumulative; the healing process deepens every day. Eight days is more than twice as beneficial as four.

Many of my early clients felt like they were just beginning to get somewhere when their 4-day retreat ended. Some were either so wound up or so rested to begin with that 48 hours was not enough for them to get anywhere, whether with their exhaustion or their inner struggle. So I upgraded my darkroom to handle 8-day retreats for first-timers.

Sure enough, they did fine and expressed greater satisfaction with their retreats than 4-day retreatants. Scheduling a first retreat of 8 days ensures a breakthrough of some kind is made. I can imagine in some very crystallized cases, longer still will be necessary. Strong defenses and controls must dissolve enough to begin making progress back to health. But 8-day retreats have great potential to support recovery of the lost self.

An 8-day retreat has all the elements of a 4-day retreat, plus:

  • a support team of at least three people. Two people should be nearby all the time with one available to respond. This creates psychic shielding for the retreatant.
  • after physical restedness is reached in the first cycle, a major psychic issue can arise and be resolved in the second cycle
  • a second day of transition is added at the end
  • a fully functional bathing facility is added for emotional as well as physical reasons. For remote locations, see plans for a portable indoor shower.

A medium retreat lasts 3 weeks to 2 months (including 15 transition days). By all accounts, the process goes really deep. My sense is that the core of one’s personal dilemma, the cause of the worst of one’s suffering, can heal in a medium retreat. Plenty of problems will remain. But one will be able to solve them. With so much time, the organism can restore capacity and clear space inside sufficiently to finally put things right again. At least, that’s the basket I’ve put all my eggs in. Fingers crossed.

It’s best to get away from all accustomed influences and associations to minimize internal obstacles. Now that you know what you’re doing in darkness, it’s worth paying extra for this. Take a trip at least a couple hours away. Fly to a darkroom on another continent if necessary. Or rent a fully functioning small house in an unpolluted place and darken it yourself, arranging for maintenance and support.

The darkroom needn’t be fancy, but it must work in every way without compromise of function. Someone else, a maintenance person, should have the responsibility of keeping it that way. There’s nothing like mechanical issues to ruin a retreat.

Yet another person, a supporter, should be available all the time to make sure you have food, basic comforts, someone to talk to for a few minutes if really necessary. By the time you decide to do it, you will know you are doing one of the most important things in your entire life. Prepare accordingly.

Use the last day or two of your transition to start handling your affairs again: checking messages and accounts, making travel arrangements, etc.

The benefit of short retreats is impressive but shallow and short-lived. Doing a lot of them does not equal doing a few long ones. The law of diminishing returns combines with the frustration of glimpsed but unrealized potential. Boldly escalate from a couple short retreats to a medium one.

Personally, I have been stuck in a rut of short retreats. My goal is to retreat for 20 days (including 5 transition days). In 2008, in my second successful retreat, I had a hunch: in 2 weeks of darkness I will heal from my psychic trauma at the core. This will enable me to put the rest of my life back together afterward. I do not know exactly how long others would have to retreat to reach the same point. One guy I know has been considering this for awhile. In his early experiments with darkness, he got a hunch he would need 3 weeks of darkness. I expect it’s a pattern. It makes sense that people come to know what they need the more they get of it.


A long retreat lasts three months to a year. I have heard several reports of retreats like this. All had results we would consider miraculous but which are well within the capacity of the human organism. The organism made itself under difficult circumstances. Under ideal circumstances, it is certainly able to remake itself. Perhaps better than new.

Stories persist of astonishing physical healing occurring in Ayurvedic darkroom retreats lasting 3-12 months: recovering lost hair and eyesight; growing new teeth; and even recovering youth itself. It seems worth looking into. The hygienic protocol for long retreats is yet to be determined. I trust our short and medium length retreats will give us clues. The reports from other traditions are certainly useful as well. For example, in the above story, the yogi exposed himself to a tiny amount of light at dawn. His assistants would leave the darkroom door cracked when they brought him food in early morning.

I like how he attributes his amazing recovery not to his practices in darkness nor the ayurvedic herbs he took, but to Lord Krishna. Krishna is an incarnation of Vishnu, the preserver. He represents the self-healing power of life.

This is part of everybody. It means you and I are enough. Given the chance—the proper conditions—we have in ourselves what we need to recover.


There are five harmful and dangerous ways to retreat in darkness. I learned about them the hard way and am paying the price to this day. The only possible point of my enduring them was so I could warn you. These are little gateways to hell. I sincerely wish for you heed my words and to avoid such suffering.

Fortunately, avoiding it is easy once you know. I will just list them here and point you to longer discussions of them elsewhere in the book. Just say no to:

  1. Mini-retreating even one minute behind schedule. See mini-retreat section above.
  2. Ending a retreat without transition days. See 4-day retreat above and protocol > post-retreat.
  3. Doing many 4-day retreats rather than quickly advancing to 8-day, medium, and long retreats. Very serious no-no, folks. Again, see 4-day retreat above and hygiene > false capacity. There, I have understated the matter simply because it cannot be overstated.
  4. Sub-standard darkrooms. We become vulnerable in darkness. We are fools to tolerate the irritations of poor design and construction: noise, low air-quality, discomfort, cold drafts, etc. See chapters 7-11 for how to build or judge a darkroom suitable for hygienic retreats. Which few people operate. It’s time to build world-class darkrooms.
  5. Retreating with poor support:
    • insufficient support
    • inexperienced, ignorant, or indifferent support
    • supporters or uninvolved people who are hostile to you or to retreating itself. Say no to abusive relationships.
  6. I know I said five dangerous ways, but maybe there are more. And worse. Why find out? There is no penalty for following the guidelines. Until you have gotten somewhere and know what you are doing, stick to the tried and true. Err conservatively. Be reckless about some other part of your life. The most amazing thing you ever do is bound to have rough edges if handled incorrectly. Don’t pet pigs backwards, either.

Ok, now you know, so you are safe. Back to the many wonders of hygienic darkroom retreating.


I would like to find the simplest way health, including sanity, can be fully restored. Like perfect healing of a broken bone. To this end, I would like to see hygienic retreat centers worldwide with facilities and support for:

  • short, medium, and long darkroom retreats
  • fasts (a la Albert Mosseri’s groundbreaking method)
  • physical retraining
  • instruction in healthy lifeway, including both lifestyle and livelihood
  • open source research and development of the above
  • a village residence for staff, family, friends, and guests, where all this gets applied and tested in real life

In three visits over two years, one would be:

  • restored to full function and vitality
  • prepared to maintain it in daily life
  • prepared to deal with the residue of the past

For a few years, I focused on designing and building public darkrooms. Then came a few more years of making and helping individuals make private darkrooms at home. As a consultant, I am also available to help:

  • operators of public dedicated darkrooms for short and medium retreats
  • those with existing centers wishing to include hygienic darkroom retreating in their programs
  • developers of hygienic retreat centers as I just described

Those who support hygienic darkroom retreating are eligible for my future network, through which I can refer clients to you. Write me for more info.


It may take a few generations of healthy living to fully restore our health and realize our potential as human beings. But we can make huge strides in our lifetimes, getting most of the way back.

We have examined different formats of the restful use of darkness for different circumstances and purposes. Let’s look ahead to more of what happens in a retreat and exactly how to conduct it.

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